C a[i] vs i[a]

When following the MIT 6.828 open course, there’s one C source code discussing pointers in Exercise 4 of lab 1.

There’s one line of code in pointers.c:

Looks weird at first sight; but TCPL says in Chapter 5.3:

So: a[i] and i[a] are equvalent (if i is a constant). 🙂

i386-jos-elf toolchain on OS X Lion

Yesterday friend and I decided to follow the MIT Operating System Engineering course together in order to get a deep understanding of OS’s. And today I started setting up the cross compling environment for the labs. At first I wanted to get the toolchain from macports, but unluckily it didn’t successfully build binutils on my Mac. As a result, I started building the toolchain from the source code, following the instructions at http://pdos.csail.mit.edu/6.828/2011/tools.html.

The programs you need for the toolchain include binutils, gcc, and gdb. For compiling gcc you also need GMP, MPFR, and MPC. The source codes are available at:

Unzip them in a directory and build binutils, gcc, and gdb one by one.

In order to build gcc, GMP, MPFR and MPC needs to be built first.

Note that it’s essential to build gcc in a directory different from the source code directory to avoid compiling errors.

Then make gdb:

QEMU is available in macports:


The code looks as follows.

RUDP Overview

RUDP is a protocol that ensures transfer reliability with UDP. A sliding window protocol (Go back N) is used to realize reliability. Using RUDP, applications can send and receive data packets without worrying about lost packets.

The lines in red signifies state change for RUDP clients (receiver side); while the black lines signifies state change for RUDP servers (sender side).